AskDefine | Define goalkeeper

Dictionary Definition

goalkeeper

Noun

1 the soccer or hockey player assigned to protect the goal [syn: goalie, goaltender, netkeeper, netminder]
2 the defensive position on an ice hockey or soccer or lacrosse team who stands in front of the goal and tries to prevent opposing players from scoring [syn: goalie, goaltender, netkeeper]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

goal + keep + -er

Noun

  1. a designated player that protects a goal by attempting to prevent the opposing team from scoring.

Usage notes

  • In ice hockey and lacrosse goaltender is the correct term and in most other sports goalkeeper is the correct term. However, the terms are often used interchangeably.

Translations

player that protects a goal

Extensive Definition

In many team sports, a goalkeeper (termed goaltender, netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports) is a designated player that is charged with directly preventing the opposite team from scoring by defending the goal. Such positions exist in hurling, association football, Gaelic football, International Rules Football, handball, ice hockey, field hockey, netball, water polo, bandy, lacrosse, floorball and a number of other sports.

Overview

Usually special rules apply to the goalkeeper that do not apply to the other players. These rules are often instituted to protect the goalkeeper, being an obvious target for dangerous or even violent actions. In certain sports, such as ice hockey, goalkeepers are required to wear special equipment like heavy pads and a face mask to protect their bodies from the impact of the playing object (e.g. a puck). In association football, goalkeepers usually wear gloves to protect their hands and enhance grip of the ball.

Examples

Association football

In association football, each team's goalkeeper defends his team's goal and has special privileges within the game. The goalkeeper's main job is to stop any penetration of the ball into the goal.
The goalkeeper is the only player who may use his or her hands to play the ball (although only within the penalty area). The goalkeeper is required to wear a different coloured kit to all other players, referee and assistant referee to avoid confusion. Goalkeepers often wear gloves to aid in catching the ball.
As the goalkeeper is usually the team's only player who can see the entire field, they often act as an organizer of the team when it is defending.

Field hockey

In field hockey, the goalkeeper generally wears extensive protective equipment including helmet, face and neck guards, chest and leg padding, gloves, lower leg guards (known as pads) and shoe covers (known as kickers). Only the helmet is compulsory, as is a shirt of a different color from any of the other players. He or she is also equipped with a stick; either one specified for goalies or one used for normal play. The goalkeeper is allowed to use any part of their body to deflect the ball, although they can't obstruct its play (for example by lying on top of it), and they can only do so within the goal circle (or "D"), and they are not permitted to pass their team's 23m line, with the exception of goalkeepers who take penalty strokes.

Gaelic football

In Gaelic football, the goalie's main task is to prevent a goal from being scored against his side by directly defending the team's goal. A goal occurs when the ball passes through the goal; the attacking team is awarded 3 points. The goalie is the only player who may handle the ball on the ground, and only inside the small rectangle.

Hurling

In hurling, the goalkeeper's main task is to prevent a goal from being scored against his side by directly defending the team's goal. He also takes "puckouts" after a score or wide ball. A goal occurs when the ball passes through the goal; the attacking team is awarded 3 points. The goalkeeper has no special rules pertaining to him, although he still wears a different color jersey. Most goalkeepers use a special hurley with a wider bas (flat face).

Bandy

In bandy, the goalkeeper defends his team's goal and has special privileges within the game. The goalkeeper's main job is to stop any penetration of the ball into the goal. He is allowed to hold the ball for six seconds before he has to release it. He may drop it to a defender or chuck it directly into attack.
If the ball passes the goal line, it is followed by different actions:
  • If the ball is last touched by a defender, the reaction is an own goal if the ball goes between the goalposts.
  • If it passes outside the goalposts, the reaction is a corner stroke.
  • If last touched by an attacker's stick, and passes between the posts, the reaction is a goal, or
  • a disallowed goal (offside or an infringement from the attacking team).
  • If the ball passes from an attacker over the goal line outside the goalposts, the goalkeeper may retrieve a new ball from a cage hanging on the goal's either side, and put the new ball in play with no signal from the referees.
The goalkeeper is the only player who may use his or her hands to play the ball (although only within the penalty area). The goalkeeper is required to wear a jersey with a color unlike his/her or the other teams jersey color to avoid confusion for the referee. Goalkeepers wear padded gloves to aid in catching the ball. He also wears large shinpads, and a padded sweater, and a helmet with a face mask.
He is the only player in the team who can pass the ball to a team mate by aide of his skates. The team might have a reserve goalkeeper, and the two may switch at ant time during the game, even without notifying the referee. There is no time-out in bandy, but an exception is sometimes made when the goalkeeper is hust, especially if they don't have a designated reserve keeper.
As the goalkeeper is usually the team's only player who can see the entire field, they often act as an organizer of the team when it is defending, especially for fre strokes against them.

Ice hockey

International rules football

In International rules football, a hybrid game between Australian rules football (which does not have a goalkeeper) and Gaelic football, the goalkeeper's main task is to prevent a goal from being scored. A goal occurs when the ball comes off any part of an attacking player and passes through the goal; the attacking team is awarded 6 points.

Field and Box Lacrosse

In men's field lacrosse, once a goalkeeper makes a save and has control of the ball in his crosse (stick), he may only remain in possession of the ball inside the protective crease for four seconds (the length may depend on the level of play). Before the four seconds is up, the goalkeeper must either pass the ball or leave the crease. After leaving, he may not re-enter the crease with possession of the ball.
While inside the crease (nine feet in radius), offensive players may not make contact with the goalie or his stick. Doing so is declared "goalie interference" and is penalized by a free clear to the half field line. (There is a significant difference between NCAA/MLL rules and international rules regarding a pass while the goalkeeper is inside the crease: under NCAA/MLL rules, contact with a goalie's stick while in the act of passing -- even after the ball is released -- is prohibited and considered interference. Under international rules, protection ends when possession ends. Therefore, contact with a goalie's stick after the ball is released, is legal.) In addition, a goalie is allowed to make contact with the ball with his hand, although he is not allowed to control it or pick it up.
In women's lacrosse, once a goalkeeper makes a save and has control of the ball in her crosse, she may remain in possession of the ball inside the crease for ten seconds. The interference rule is similar to men's lacrosse; unlike in the men's game, a woman goalkeeper is allowed to control or even pick up the ball in her hand.
In both men's and women's lacrosse, goalkeepers are required to wear a helmet and 4-point chinstrap, a throat protector, gloves, and a chest protector. Use of a protective cup is, for obvious reasons, required in the men's game; thigh pads and shinguards are also being required for women goalkeepers as of 2007. Although they do, few goalkeepers elect to wear optional protective equipment, including elbow and shoulder pads, thigh pads and shin guards, and long sweat pants.
In Box Lacrosse, a goaltender is typically more heavily armored than a field lacrosse goaltender and plays with a net that is four feet tall and four feet wide, except in the National Lacrosse League and Major Series Lacrosse where the nets are the same height but four and a half feet wide. The crease rules are relatively the same, except that the punishments for different infractions include a change of possession, resetting of the time-clock, or a possible two minute penalty depending on the infraction. Box lacrosse goaltenders are known for their massive upper body gear, large shin guards known as "irons", and ice hockey-style helmets. Also, below the professional level, box lacrosse goaltenders are often seen using traditional wooden sticks.
The box lacrosse goaltender is allowed to play in any area of the playing surface and is not confined to any zone. It is not uncommon to see a box lacrosse goaltender run up and join the play in the offensive zone on a slow whistle. Goaltenders in box lacrosse are known to score goals for their team, usually in powerplay or slow whistle situations. Also, due to the unique lack of offsides rules in box lacrosse, it is not unheard of to see a goaltender lead his team in scoring on game sheets through multiple assists, usually through long passes to teammates that are attempting to breakaway on unsuspecting defenders. Box lacrosse goaltenders are also encouraged to be aggressive stick checkers around the ball and ferocious cross-checkers when needed (cross-checking is legal in box lacrosse). If a goaltender leaves the crease with possession of the ball, opponents are allowed to cross-check the goaltender as long as there is no attempt to injure.

Netball

A netball goalkeeper is one of two players who are permitted to remain within their defensive shooting third, and is restricted to the defensive third of the court.

Water polo

Goalkeepers in water polo are granted three special privileges when inside the four metre area:
  • The ability to touch the ball with two hands.
  • The ability to touch the floor of the pool.
  • The ability to strike the ball with a clenched fist.
However, they have one limitation that field players do not have: they may not cross the half-distance line.
Rule change in 2006:
The four and seven meter lines were merged to a five meter line. A goalie may now under revised rules:
  • Use two hands until the 5 m line
  • Use the bottom until the 5 m line
  • Go beyond the 5 m line according to the field rules (one hand, no bottom) and not pass the half line.
  • Strike the ball with a clenched fist (not recommended)
New cap rules:
  • A goalie cap must now be in quarters alternating red/dark for home and red/white for away
  • The goalie must be number 1, 1a, or 1b
  • For females: a red swim cap must be worn under the goalie cap, a team's dark swim cap is no longer acceptable as it is hard to distinguish a goalie from field players if official cap is off.
These revisions are according to the NFHS 2006-2007 swimming/diving and water polo rulebook. USWP and NCAA rules may vary slightly.

Goalkeepers in numismatics

Goalkeepers have been used on some collectors' coins and medals such as the Austrian 5 euro 100 years of football coin that was minted on 12 May, 2004. The coin depicts a successful shot by a footballer, shown in the background, with the ball just passing the goalkeeper (still in the air) into the goal.
goalkeeper in Arabic: حارس مرمى
goalkeeper in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Брамнік
goalkeeper in Bosnian: Vratar
goalkeeper in Bulgarian: Вратар
goalkeeper in Czech: Brankář
goalkeeper in Danish: Målmand
goalkeeper in German: Torwart
goalkeeper in Spanish: Guardameta
goalkeeper in Esperanto: Golulo
goalkeeper in Persian: دروازه‌بان
goalkeeper in French: Gardien de but
goalkeeper in Korean: 골키퍼
goalkeeper in Indonesian: Penjaga gawang
goalkeeper in Italian: Portiere
goalkeeper in Hebrew: שוער
goalkeeper in Lithuanian: Vartininkas
goalkeeper in Hungarian: Labdarúgókapus
goalkeeper in Dutch: Doelman
goalkeeper in Japanese: ゴールキーパー
goalkeeper in Norwegian: Målvakt
goalkeeper in Norwegian Nynorsk: Målmann
goalkeeper in Polish: Bramkarz
goalkeeper in Portuguese: Goleiro
goalkeeper in Russian: Вратарь
goalkeeper in Simple English: Goalkeeper
goalkeeper in Serbian: Голман
goalkeeper in Finnish: Maalivahti
goalkeeper in Swedish: Målvakt
goalkeeper in Thai: ผู้รักษาประตู
goalkeeper in Turkish: Kaleci
goalkeeper in Contenese: 守門員
goalkeeper in Chinese: 守門員
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